Agilent Spectrum Analyzer
Tektronix Logic Analyzer – Optical Spectrum
A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system
Many digital designs, including those of ICs, are simulated to detect defects before the unit is constructed. The simulation usually provides logic analysis displays. Often, complex discrete logic is verified by simulating inputs and testing outputs using boundary scan. Logic analyzers can uncover hardware defects that are not found in simulation. These problems are typically too difficult to model in simulation, or too time consuming to simulate and often cross.
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Noise Figure Analyzers
Optical Spectrum Analyzers
Serial Data Analyzers
A spectrum analyzer measures the magnitude of an input signal versus frequency within the full frequency range of the instrument. The primary use is to measure the power of the spectrum of known and unknown signals. The input signal a spectrum analyzer measures is electrical, however, spectral compositions of other signals, such as acoustic pressure waves and optical light waves, can be considered through the use of an appropriate transducer. Optical spectrum analyzers also exist, which use direct optical techniques such as a monochromator to make measurements.
Spectrum analyzer types are dictated by the methods used to obtain the spectrum of a signal. There are swept-tuned and FFT based spectrum analyzers:
- A swept-tuned spectrum analyzer uses a superheterodyne receiver to down-convert a portion of the input signal spectrum (using avoltage-controlled oscillator and a mixer) to the center frequency of a band-pass filter. With a superheterodyne architecture, thevoltage-controlled oscillator is swept through a range of frequencies, enabling the consideration of the full frequency range of the instrument.
- A FFT spectrum analyzer computes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), a mathematical process that transforms a waveform into the components of its frequency spectrum, of the input signal.
Some spectrum analyzers, such as real-time spectrum analyzers, use a hybrid technique where the incoming signal is first down-converted to a lower frequency using superheterodyne techniques and then analyzed using fast fourier transformation (FFT) techniques.
A “Protocol analyzer” is a tool (hardware or software) used to capture and analyze signals and data traffic over a communication channel. Such a channel varies from a local computer bus to a satellite link, that provides a means of communication using a standard communication protocol (networked or point-to-point). Each type of communication protocol has a different tool to collect and analyze signals and data.