RF Power Amplifiers For Rent
Microwave Power Amplifier – Solid State Amp
An electronic amplifier, amplifier, or (informally) amp is an electronic device that increases the power of a signal. It does this by taking energy from a power supply and controlling the output to match the input signal shape but with a larger amplitude. In this sense, an amplifier modulates the output of the power supply.
There are four basic types of electronic amplifier: the voltage amplifier, the current amplifier, the transconductance amplifier, and the transresistance amplifier. A further distinction is whether the output is a linear or exponential representation of the input. Amplifiers can also be categorized by their physical placement in the signal chain.
Amplifier quality is characterized by a list of specifications that includes:
- Gain, the ratio between the magnitude of output and input signals
- Bandwidth, the width of the useful frequency range
- Efficiency, the ratio between the power of the output and total power consumption
- Linearity, the degree of proportionality between input and output
- Noise, a measure of undesired noise mixed into the output
- Output dynamic range, the ratio of the largest and the smallest useful output levels
- Slew rate, the maximum rate of change of the output
- Rise time, settling time, ringing and overshoot that characterize the step response
- Stability, the ability to avoid self-oscillation
Amplifiers are described according to their input and output properties. They exhibit the property of gain, or multiplication factor that relates the magnitude of the output signal to the input signal. The gain may be specified as the ratio of output voltage to input voltage (voltage gain), output power to input power (power gain), or some combination of current, voltage, and power. In many cases, with input and output in the same unit, gain is unitless (though often expressed in decibels (dB)).
- Voltage amplifier – This is the most common type of amplifier. An input voltage is amplified to a larger output voltage. The amplifier’s input impedance is high and the output impedance is low.
- Current amplifier – This amplifier changes an input current to a larger output current. The amplifier’s input impedance is low and the output impedance is high.
- Transconductance amplifier – This amplifier responds to a changing input voltage by delivering a related changing output current.
- Transresistance amplifier – This amplifier responds to a changing input current by delivering a related changing output voltage. Other names for the device are transimpedance amplifier and current-to-voltage converter.
In practice the power gain of an amplifier will depend on the source and load impedances used as well as the inherent voltage/current gain; while an RF amplifier may have its impedances optimized for power transfer, audio and instrumentation amplifiers are normally designed with their input and output impedances optimized for least loading and highest signal integrity. An amplifier that is said to have a gain of 20 dB might have a voltage gain of ten times and an available power gain of much more than 20 dB (power ratio of 100), yet actually be delivering a much lower power gain if, for example, the input is from a 600 ohm microphone and the output is connected to a 47 kilohm input socket for a power amplifier.
In most cases an amplifier will be linear; that is, the gain is constant for any normal level of input and output signal. If the gain is not linear, e.g., clipping of the signal, the output signal will be distorted. There are however cases where variable gain is useful. Exponential gain amplifiers are used in certain signal processing applications.
There are many differing types of electronic amplifiers used in areas such as: radio and television transmitters and receivers, high-fidelity (“hi-fi”) stereo equipment, microcomputers and other digital equipment, and guitar and other instrument amplifiers. The essential components include active devices, such as vacuum tubes or transistors. A brief introduction to the many types of electronic amplifiers follows.
The term power amplifier is a relative term with respect to the amount of power delivered to the load and/or provided by the power supply circuit. In general the power amplifier is the last ‘amplifier’ or actual circuit in a signal chain (the output stage) and is the amplifier stage that requires attention to power efficiency. Efficiency considerations lead to the various classes of power amplifier based on the biasing of the output transistors or tubes: see power amplifier classes.
Power amplifiers by application
- Audio power amplifiers
- RF power amplifier, such as for transmitter final stages (see also: Linear amplifier).
- Servo motor controllers, where linearity is not important.
- Piezoelectric audio amplifier includes a DC-to-DC converter to generate the high voltage output required to drive piezoelectric speakers.